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EYFS体系的主要内容

The main content of the EYFS system

英国教育界认为,比起传授所谓真实而正确的知识,教会儿童如何交流显然更有价值。教育者和儿童不应该是不成熟的、保护者和被保护者的关系,而应该形成一种基于友谊,自发形成的自然愉悦且充满探索的人际关系。


The British education community believes that it is obviously more valuable to teach children how to communicate than to teach the so-called real and correct knowledge. Educators and children should not be immature relationships between protectors and proteges but should form a relationship based on friendship, spontaneous and full of exploration.

 

EYFS是英国政府以给父母最好的选择,给幼儿最好的开始为宗旨,提出建立的早教体系。英国教育部自2000年立专项调研,总共历时12年,耗资超过1500万镑,超过7000名专家、学者和教师参与了调研工作,在全球20多个国家进行了调研,对来自141所各类学前教育机构的30003岁到11岁儿童进行长期追踪研究,期间总计发出45,000份相关咨询文件,确认了0-5岁阶段的早期教育能更有效地促进低龄儿童的发展。


The British government is proposed to establish an early childhood education system with the aim of giving parents the best choice and giving young children the best start. The Ministry of Education has set up a special survey since 2000. It lasted 12 years and cost more than 15 million pounds. More than 7,000 experts, scholars and teachers involved in the research work and conducted surveys in more than 20 countries around the world. Three thousand children from 3 to 11 years old from various preschool educational institutions  have been involved in the long-term follow-up studies. A total of 45,000 relevant consultation documents were issued during this period, confirming that early education at the age of 0-5 years can more effectively promote the development of pupils.


作为有史以来最大规模的早期教育跟踪及效果评估项目之一,EYFS20089月起被正式纳入英格兰《儿童保育法案》(Childcare Act 2006),在法律框架下形成了EYFS幼儿教育方案,以此促进0-5岁学前儿童早教水平,促进幼儿发展,为幼儿未来学习和生活打下坚实的基础。


EYFS is one of the largest early education performance track and evaluation projects in history. EYFS was formally incorporated into the Childcare Act 2006 in England from September 2008. That formed the EYFS Early Childhood Education Program under the legal framework in order to promote the level of preschool education for children aged 0-5 years. Then it will also promote the development of children and lay a solid foundation for children's future study and life.



根据专家对早期教育方式进行的科学研究,EYFS确立了28项早期教育目标,117个评价标准。EYFS早教体系涵盖幼儿成长各个领域的学习,主要包含七个学习领域:


Regarding to the scientific research conducted by experts on early education methods, EYFS has established 28 early education goals and 117 evaluation criteria. The EYFS Early Learning System covers learning in all areas of early childhood development. It consists of seven major areas of study:


 

1.    沟通、语言和文字(communication and language)

 

2.    身体的发展(physical development)

 

3.    个人、社会和情感发展(personal, social and emotional development)

 

4.    读写(literacy)

 

5.    数学(mathematics)

 

6.    对世界的理解(understanding the world)

 

7.    表现力和艺术设计(expressive arts and design)

 

简而言之,EYFS的目标是给0-5岁的幼儿提供一个能连续发展和学习的体系,使他们在生活中获得更好的发展机会,让每个幼儿都能成长为身心健康,拥有安全感的成功而快乐的人。

 

In short, EYFS aims to provide a system for children aged 0-5 to develop and learn continuously. Therefore, they can have better development opportunities in their lives.


在此宗旨下,EYFS的课程主要由愉悦而富有挑战性的游戏组成,强调幼儿的活动参与,重视幼儿的兴趣与成就,以多元的、相互关联的模块全方位地发展幼儿的各项潜能。例如EYFS会根据不同年龄阶段的幼儿进行有目的的课程设置,使幼儿能够准备如何去学习,学会如何交朋友和玩耍,能够知道自己的需求和表达自己的想法。


Under this purpose, EYFS's curriculum is mainly composed of pleasant and challenging games, emphasising the participation of children, attenting children's interests and achievements and developing children's potentials in all aspects through multiple, interrelated modules. For example, EYFS will conduct purposeful curriculum based on children of different ages so that children can be prepared to learn how to learn, how to make friends and play, know their needs and express their own ideas.




EYFS的开发者相信:尊重孩子的个性+正向积极的关系+激发能力的环境可以为儿童带来学习与成长

 

The developers of EYFS believe that respecting the child's personality + active and positive relationship + environment where stimulate ability can bring learning and growth to children.


EYFS的理论基础和特点


The Theoretical Basis and Characteristics of EYFS


EYFS体系以著名的意大利蒙台梭利 (Maria Montessori) 教育理念和实践为基础,融合了当今世界上20多种先进的教育理论、研究和实践。


The EYFS system is based on the famous Italian Montessori educational philosophy and practice. It integrated more than 20 advanced educational theories, researches and practices around the world today.

 

这其中还包括瑞吉欧 (Reggio Emilio) 强调成人的儿童观及成人期望重要性的理念、德国史代纳 (Rudolf Steiner) 的华德福 (Waldorf) 理念、美国的高赡教育 (High Scope),以及福禄倍尔 (Friedrich Fröbel) 的哲学、苏珊艾萨克(Susan Issacs)的经验主义理论、维果茨基(Lev Vygotsky) 关于游戏和最近发展区理论、美国唐纳森 (Margayet Donaldson) 博士和德伟克 (Carol Dweck) 博士关于儿童对自己作为学习者的认识的观点、以及席尔瓦 (Kathy Sylva) 教授关于早期教育影响作用的研究观点。

 

值得注意的是,虽然EYFS体系借鉴融合了许多先进科学的教育理念、实践和研究,但该体系仍有自己的特别之处。相比蒙特梭利的教育理念,EYFS教育体系更符合现代和未来时代发展的需要,其教育体系的科学性和权威性已经得到世界范围内的广泛认可。


It is worth noting that although the EYFS system draws on many advanced educational concepts, practices, and researchthe system still has its own special features. Compared to Montessoris education concept, the EYFS education system is more in line with the needs of modern and development. The scientific and authoritative of its education system has been widely recognised worldwide.


例如EYFS明确提出老师和家长要系统而有计划地设置玩具和活动,从而让孩子在play 与探索实践中达到相应的学习目标。


For example, EYFS clearly stated that teachers and parents should set toys and activities in the systematical and planned way so that children can achieve the corresponding learning objectives in the play and exploration practices.

 

此外,EYFS对于教育的重点,以及对教育者和儿童关系的定位也将它与其它教育体系区分开来。EYFS认为交流的价值远远超过了传授"什么是真实的和正确的"的意义,对于儿童来说更是如此——教育者和儿童之间不应该是不成熟的,须要保护的个体和看护者的关系。而应该形成一种基于真正友谊的人际关系,这种人际关系的特点就是自发自然、冒险和愉悦。


In addition, EYFS distinguishes itself from other education systems from the emphasis in education and the positioning relationship of educators and children. EYFS believes that the value of communication far exceeds the value of imparting what is true and correct,especially for children - the relationship between educators and children should not be immature, not just protector and protectees. Instead, a kind of relationships based on true friendship should be formed. This kind of interpersonal relationship is characterised at Spontaneity, adventure and joy.


 

 

EYFS体系配合的场景和设备


Activities and Facilities follow EYFS


蒙特梭利的教学内容根据教具的种类来分为五大领域,即日常生活教育、感官教育、语言教育 、数学教育、自然人文教育,这五大内容也被借鉴到EYFS体系中。


According to the types of teaching tools, Montessoris teaching content is divided into five areas: daily life education, sensory education, language education, mathematics education, and natural humanity education. These five major areas are also used in the EYFS system.


根据EYFS的标准,孩子在40-60个月期间会逐渐从涂鸦发展到有目的的涂写,例如会写简单的字母,会画简单的图形。为此,英国幼儿园为了让孩子们,特别是3-5岁的男生练习写画能力,会想办法体力化


According to the EYFS standard, children will gradually develop from graffiti to purposeful writing during 40-60 months. For example, they will write simple letters and draw simple figures. For this reason, in order to let children, especially boys aged 3-5, practice drawing skills, British nursery schools try to be physical in many methods.

 

举例而言,一些幼儿园会让孩子用扫帚沾上水在地上写,或者把一张很大的纸铺在地上,让孩子在地上写画,这样他们的身体会有较大运动。此外,孩子能够写字所需的另一个技能是手指的精细运动,英国幼儿园的老师会建议让孩子练习穿珠子,搭乐高等来练习手指的精细运动。


For example, some schools will let their children use a broom to dip in water to write on the ground, or put a large piece of paper on the ground to let the children write on the ground so that their bodies will have greater movement. In addition, another skill that the child can use to write is fine movement of the fingers. The teachers of the British schools will recommend the children practice to wear beads and play with lego.

 

对于世界的认知也是EYFS体系的重要板块,人文与环境是其重点关注的领域之一,所以孩子们在学龄前会通过与实践学到很多的知识。例如让孩子学习垃圾分类,要把相应的垃圾扔到普通垃圾、可回收垃圾和堆肥垃圾存放地;孩子学习昆虫的生长环境,那就要到灌木丛中自己寻找,同时老师会提供工具,并且要求孩子不要伤害昆虫。


It is also an important part of the EYFS system to perceive the world . It focuses on humanity and the environment. Therefore, children can learn a lot of knowledge through playing and practice before primary school. For example, let the children learn garbage classification, throw the corresponding garbage into ordinary, recyclable, and compost waste storage place. Moreover, children can learn the environment of the insects, then they must find themselves in the bushes. The teacher will provide tools and ask your child not to injure insects.


 

 

为配合EYFS早教体系的教学,上海伊派幼儿园也结合自身特点打造相应的环境和场景,分别开设了角色扮演区、图书室和阅读区、音乐室、感官功能室、室内游戏和探究区,还有室外种植区、养殖区、音乐广场、游戏区、戏沙和戏水区和探险小森林等探索自然区域。


In line with EYFS Early Learning System, Shanghai Yipai Kindergarten also created appropriate environments based on its own characteristics. It opens role playing areas, library and reading areas, music rooms, sensory rooms, indoor games and exploration areas. For natural exploration areas, it includes outdoor planting zone, aquaculture zone, music square, game zone, sand and water playing zone and forests for adventure.